Updated: Aug 31, 2020
In Japanese, we use a variety of vocabularies to express “You” depending on the person you are talking to and the context in which a certain word is more appropriate than others. 「あなた(Anata)」、「あなたたち(Anatatachi)」、「君（きみ; Kimi）」、「君たち(きみたち；Kimitachi)」are generally considered as common and frequently used words in conversations and readings. In addition to these, however, there are those slang words which are broadly used only by people confirming to certain groups. 「おまえ（Omae）」and 「貴様(きさま；kisama)」are two of such examples. It is important to distinguish which “You” word to use in spoken and written contexts as an inappropriate choice of words can often lead to an insult against them.
When you show respect towards a person, you use the name of the person instead of 「あなた（onata）」to show respect. At the same time, it must not be overlooked that in Japanese culture and thus in the Japanese language, “You” is likely to be omitted in both written and spoken contexts especially when two people are talking. This is because it is considered to be unnecessary when two of them both understand that such conversations are for themselves. It is only when more than two people are in conversations that “You” plays an important role in clarifying who the speaker is talking to and its significance increases as the number of people in a context increases.
Meanings and contexts in which「あなた(Anata)」、「君（きみ;
「あなた(Anata)」is the formal word meaning “You” and is used in formal contexts. For example, you meet someone for your first time and ask a question, you say 「あなたの出身はどこですか。(あなたのしゅっしんはどこですか；anatano shusshinwa dokodesuka; Where are you from?)」To ask where a person you are talking to is from. In a context of more than two people, you specify 「あなた (Anata)」(a particular person) to start a form of conversation with him/her in the group context.
Anatano shumiwa nandesuka.
(What is your hobby?)
Anatano namaewa nandesuka.
(What is your name?)
Anatano kotoni tsuite oshietekudasai.
(Tell me about yourself.)
As you can see from these above three examples, “あなた(Anata)” is used mostly in contexts of asking formal questions when two or more parties meet for the first time.
「君（きみ；Kimi）」is also used but only in contexts, including conversations among friends and people aged lower than you and often when a person in an upper position of a hierarchy uses to mean someone in a lower position. Also, it is often used in literature, manga, TV dramas, films, songs to show personal affection towards a certain person.
Kimi, chotto jikanwa arukai?
(Do you have some time?)
Kimino utagoeni hikareta.